Sharing Steps in Github Action Workflows

I’ve got an electron app that needs to be built on all three platforms. I’ve got three workflow files all with slightly differing steps. Is there way to share whats common? Yes. It’s called composite actions.

Update (Jan 4, 2024): There is another way to reuse workflows thats described in the reusing workflows section of the docs.

What is a Composite Action?

The name is not the most intuitive (why not “shared action”?), but it’s a group of steps that are intended to be “used” within a workflow file. This is GitHub’s solution for sharing steps between workflows. Here is an example of the simplest composite action.

name: "My Shared Steps"
  using: "composite" # <-- this is the important part
    - run: echo "Hello, World"
      shell: bash

First, make a file like this and set the top-level runs: property to the string "composite".

Also, Action files are different from Workflow files. Once such difference is that your steps must specify a shell property if they use run: . That knowledge will save you from this error.

Shell Error

Where do I put this file?

It can go anywhere in your repo. Or in it’s own repo. But, I want mine in the .github/actions folder at the root of my repository. Something like:


Notice that I needed to create a directory containing a file called action.yml. This is the required structure for an action. I tried naming the file something else and it didn’t like that.

Action Error

Important: the action must be a directory containing an action.yml file.

How do I use it?

If you read that error above closely, you noticed an important catch. Before I could use this action, I had to first checkout the repo. That makes sense, since the file is…well…in the repo. Here’s how the steps of my workflow job look:

	- uses: actions/checkout@v3 # required first
	- uses: ./.github/actions/my-shared-steps

Since I am using an action that is in our repo, I specify the path to the file from the root of the repository starting with a ./ (that’s required). If your action is not in the repo, here are your options for using it.

Passing Data to the Action

More errors revealed that I couldn’t use the ${{ secrets }} variable in my composite action. I had to pass it data using the inputs: property in the action, and the with: property in the workflow. Here’s an example:

# .github/actions/build-win/action.yml

name: Build Windows
description: Specific steps to build for Windows
    required: true
    required: true
    required: true
  using: "composite"
    - name: Build Signed Release
      shell: bash
      run: yarn electron-builder --win
        CSC_KEY_PASSWORD: ${{ inputs.csc_key_password }}
        CSC_LINK: ${{ inputs.csc_link }}
        GH_TOKEN: ${{ inputs.gh_token }}

And I used it like this:

# .github/workflows/win-release-candidate.yml

name: Brim Windows release candidate creation
    runs-on: windows-2019
      - uses: actions/checkout@v2
      - uses: ./.github/actions/setup-brim
      - uses: ./.github/actions/build-win # <--- Using the composite action here
          csc_key_password: ${{ secrets.WINDOWS_SIGNING_PASSPHRASE }}
          csc_link: ${{ secrets.WINDOWS_SIGNING_PFX_BASE64 }}
          gh_token: ${{ secrets.GITHUB_TOKEN }}

Can I publish it?

Yes. This article in the docs titled “Creating a composite action” shows how to make a compsite action in it’s own repo with inputs and outputs, then uses it in a workflow.

I’ve now DRY’d out my CI workflows with composite actions. One installs Go and Node then runs yarn install. Another publishes artifacts to our private Google Cloud bucket. It’s great.

Post Script

Debugging CI is a pain. You know. You edit a workflow file, you commit, you push, you open the browser, you wait, it fails, your YAML was not indented enough, repeat. It sucks. There has got to be a better way. To start, it would be great to at least validate my workflow file with some CLI tool before I push. Or a local VM I could test it in? If this exists already, someone please tell me.

Update (Jan 4, 2024): I have been informed there is a tool for this called act. I have not used it yet, but the repo has 46K stars so they must be doing something right.

Thanks for Reading

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